UNIT 83 Politics
A Types of government
 
democracy: Leaders are chosen by the people.
monarchy: A country ruled by a king or queen. There are countries that have a monarchy, but the monarch is not the ruler, e.g., the United Kingdom.
dictatorship: One person rules the country with total power. This person is called a dictator.

B Political beliefs
 
Abstract noun Personal noun/adjective
conservatism
socialism
liberalism
communism
conservative
socialist
liberal
communist

C Political positions
 
What does it mean to be a liberal or a conservative? Often it means different things in different countries, but people in the U.S. sometimes talk about someone's political position like this:
 
on the left/ middle of the road / on the right /
left of center
[liberal]
in the center
[moderate]
right of center
[conservative]

D Elections
 
In a democracy, people vote for / elect [choose in a formal way] the person, called a candidate, that they prefer, for president, senator, governor, mayor, etc. Usually at least two candidates run for office [try to be elected]. They do this in an election. In many countries, national elections take place / are held [happen] every four or five years. Candidates usually belong to a political party, e.g., Republican, Democrat.

Forty-six percent voted for the Democrats in the last Congressional election. [The Democrats got 46% of the votes.]
The President was elected two years ago.

E Political systems and government
 
Political systems are different all over the world. In the U.S., the President is chosen in national elections every four years. The Congress [the legislature / group of lawmakers] is elected separately, and sometimes (though not usually), the President and Congress may belong to different political parties. This type of system is called presidential government. In some countries, such as the U.K., when a political party wins a majority [51% or more] of seats [official positions in Parliament] in a national election, their leader [the head of the party] becomes Prime Minister, and they are in power. This system is called parliamentary government.